Regional Northern Leopard Frog declines of 23% (1992-93) and 5% (1993-94) were observed in a southern Ontario area monitored between 1992 and 1994 (Hecnar and M’Closkey 1997). Small frogs get their worms first: The role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed Northern Leopard Frogs, Rana pipiens, and Woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii. The Northern Leopard Frog endangered in Alberta. : Unknown with any certainty. 1999; Alberta Sustainable Resource Development 2003). Exposure of leopard frogs to a pesticide mixture affects life history characteristics of the lungworm Rhabdias ranae. Mossman, M.J., L.M. Herpetological Conservation 1:1-15. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ontario. The Northern Leopard Frog typically lives for a maximum of four to five years. Mass mortality events resulting from Ranavirus have been observed in Ontario, and a four-year study in eastern and central regions of the province has noted a decline in abundance (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 2006). L’exploitation des grenouilles au Quebec. Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre. Breckenridge, W. J. Are small, isolated wetlands expendable? Parris, M.J., E. Reese, and A. Storfer. Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. This can spell big trouble for local frogs, particularly in the case of so-called "sport-fish" which EAT all the tadpoles and can completely wipe out a frog population. 1 of 91. Bishop and K.E. Anuran larvae exposed to agricultural runoff develop higher rates of limb deformities (Kiesecker 2002). Web site: [Accessed November 2006]. Preferred foraging habitat in the prairie regions consists of low vegetation no more than 30 cm tall (Merrell 1977), as well as areas of higher structural diversity. Unpublished Technical Report. Assume that the population grows exponentially. 2008. 2005. 2002. Eigenbrod, F., S.J. 1907. 2000. Beasley. The species is not commercially exploited in Saskatchewan (Seburn 1992a; Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre 2006), and its use as bait there has been banned. Pages 83-90 in M.J. Lannoo, editor. DRAFT. Ealey, G.C. Premature drying of ponds may encourage rapid transformation of late stage tadpoles. 1997). Thus although the range of the Northern Leopard Frog appears to be continuous across central Canada, there is a significant historical and genetic division between populations stemming from glacial refugia east or west of the Great Lakes (Hoffman and Blouin 2004a). Edmonton, Alberta. Cleveland Hts., OH The Northern Leopard Frog is widely distributed in North America, from southeastern British Columbia to Labrador and from the southcentral Northwest Territories down through the central and southwestern United States near to Mexico. Metamorphosis is temperature and, possibly, density dependent and takes approximately 60 to 90 days after the eggs have hatched (Wershler 1991). It is also listed as Critically Endangered under the Commonwealth EPBC Act, and Endangered under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Société de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec. Amphibiens et Reptiles du Québec et des Maritimes. Despite recovery efforts, the number of adult Northern Leopard Frogs in the Rocky Mountain DU of remains exceedingly small and continues to decline (Adama and Beaucher 2006). UV Repair and Resistance to Solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: A Link to Population Declines? Historical evidence of widespread chytrid infection in North American amphibian populations. 2003. Wershler, C.L. 2005. 1997. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thesis, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta. 1993. 2006. c. Find the number of years required for the frog population to reach 600. 1999. Didiuk, A. Hoffman, E.A., and M.S. 2005. Pp. comm.) Arrows indicate the hypothesized movement of frogs into western Canada. Auger. 61 pp. Environmental NGO lands) are added, there is a considerable extent of protected habitat (S. Giguère pers. Preferred bottom substrate is highly variable although breeding sites tend to have substrates overlain with decomposing vegetation. An anomalously golden-coloured morph, probably a partial albino lacking the idiriophores responsible for blue colouration in the skin, has been documented in the Cypress Hills of Alberta [K. Kendell, personal communication (pers. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry22(1):101-110. Wilson. Frog Population Some bullfrogs were introduced into a small pond. Although information regarding amphibian diversity in and use of altered habitats on the island varies (Silva et al. Corn. Ann Arbor: Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 148. 1944. burrows as temporary refuges during the foraging season (Waye and Cooper 2001). It is estimated that approximately 69% of southwestern Ontario consisted of wetlands before settlement (Snell 1987; Hecnar 1997). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33:95-104. No. Fertilizers and herbicides are applied within 40 m of the Creston Valley National Wildlife Area and soil tillage occurs during the spring and fall (Adama and Beaucher 2006). 1981; Wershler 1991; Souder 2000). 2003). Seburn, C.N.L. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. A wildlife species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed. The frog population in a small pond grows exponentially. Herpetologica 37:155-160. Between approximately 1950 and 1990, Alberta lost 50% of its 4,000 km² of wetlands, with accelerated loss during the 1980s (Alberta Northern Leopard Frog Recovery Team 2005). A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. Raffel, H.J. Leonard, W.P., and K.L. Davis. Maximum-likelihood tree (A), rooted with L. blairi and L. utricularia as outgroups, from Hoffman and Blouin (2004a). Rowe, J.S. Pickerel Frogs are found only in eastern North America. Distribution and abundance of the Chorus Frog Pseudacris triseriata in Quebec. Habitat is also protected in various eastern National Parks: Bruce Peninsula, Pukaskwa, Georgian Bay Islands, St. Lawrence Islands, and Point Pelee (Ontario), Forillon, La Mauricie, Mingan Archipelago (Quebec), Cape Breton Highlands and Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia), Kouchibuguac (New Brunswick), and Prince Edward Island (PEI). Diamond. (2008) used only a single sample, from northwestern Ontario, that would represent the putative Eastern DU and found that it contained a unique mtDNA haplotype compared to more westerly samples (Figure 4). 1968. Hillis, D. M., and T.P. The species name “pipiens” comes from the erroneous association of this frog with the call of the Spring Peeper, Pseudacris crucifer, which is small frog that breeds at the same time as the Northern Leopard Frog and co-occurs with it throughout the northeastern portion of its range (Pace 1974). 1996. 1998. (Waye and Cooper 2001). Amphibians and Reptiles of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The Prairie/Western Boreal DU contains the populations in the Alberta, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and Manitoba approximately west of the Canadian Shield. 2006. Bovbjerg, L.V., and A. M. Bovbjerg. Amphibian post-metamorphic growth is lower in compromised habitats (Gray and Smith 2005; Adama and Beaucher 2006) and habitat loss may lead to local extirpations (Alberta Sustainable Resource Development 2003). Extensive land alteration in favour of agriculture has occurred throughout the Midwest of the United States (Rorabaugh 2005) and the species is noted to be declining in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan (Moriarty 1998; Mossman et al. 1998. Seburn, C.N.L. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MT. Report of the Historical Database Committee: Report of the Historical Populations Trends Subgroup, Canadian Working Group – Declines in Canadian amphibians identified using historical distributional data. What is alarming is that there are many cases where the habitat is protected and amphibians are still disappearing. Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B.Haddad, R. O. Seburn, C.N.L., and D.C. Seburn. Gendron et al. What happened to the leopard frogs? 2000. 1899 S Taylor Road a. Bullfrog eliminating leopard frogs in Colorado? Kendell, K., S. Stevens, and D. Prescott. Fertilizers such as nitrates may be linked to amphibian declines (Hecnar 1995). Frog and toad survey. A herpetological survey of 87 wetlands in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Area. Glass frog, any of a group of tree frogs found in the New World tropics, some species of which have translucent bellies and chests. Hoffman, D.G. The ecology of a brackish water population of Rana pipiens. Seburn and Seburn (2000) report the loss of approximately 90% of wetlands in southwestern Ontario. Climate variability in regions of amphibian declines. Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens): A Technical Conservation Assessment. Preliminary report on leopard frog (Rana pipiens) populations in Wisconsin. They are extremely sensitive to changes in the environment and can give scientists valuable insight into how an ecosystem is functioning. Ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals and amphibian population declines. Wetland distribution and conversion in southern Ontario. comm.). 2005. Journal of Heredity 71:439–440. Road traffic, particularly, can cause significant amphibian mortality upon Northern Leopard Frog populations (Eigenbrod et al. Volunteer Amphibian Monitoring in Alberta 1992-1994: The results of the pilot project -- a preliminary examination. Notes on the food of Alberta amphibians. 1976. 2005. 1997. Herpetological Review 13(4):115–116. Other studies report that egg fertilization is not influenced by pH (Karns 1983; Freda 1986; Andren et al. 2008. In Quebec, observations by volunteers and professionals have been compiled in the Atlas des amphibiens et des reptiles du Québec since 1988 and a call survey has been in place since 1993. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Direction régionale de Montréal. Bolek, M.G. Hogan, N.S., P. Duarte, M.G. Rouse et al. Scudder, D.H. Turpin, and N.C. Larter. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 863–874. Northern Leopard Frog declines in Alberta were first observed in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Wershler 1991). Alberta Northern Leopard Frog Recovery Plan, 2005-2010. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program. He has gained considerable knowledge of Northern Leopard Frog biology, conservation, and management while working and volunteering on various amphibian research projects in southwestern Alberta since 2002. Archbold. This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. Herpetological Conservation 1:141-148. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 18:147-152. Prior to the large-scale declines observed in the early 1970s, the Northern Leopard Frog was widespread and locally common to abundant throughout its range. The species was introduced to Anticosti Island (Desroches and Rodrigue 2004), western Newfoundland (Maunder 1997; Conant and Collins 1998) and Vancouver Island (Green 1978). Effect of chemical synergy and larval stage on the toxicity of atrazine and alachlor to amphibian larvae. Other likely sources of mortality in Alberta include introduced brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that persist in otherwise pristine amphibian habitats in national and provincial parks and other areas. Egg mass translocation is scheduled to occur in 2008 and 2009 in Waterton Lakes National Park as well (Smith pers. Just over half of one-year-old males are mature at 51 mm svl (Gilbert et al. 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